HYBRID BLOCKCHAIN

(Received: 10-May-2020, Revised: 28-Jun.-2020 and 20-Jul.-2020 , Accepted: 8-Aug.-2020)
Blockchain is a revolutionary technology that gained widespread popularity since the emergence of crypto-currencies. The potential uses of Blockchain surpassed digital currency into a wider space that includes the Internet of Things (IoT), security applications and smart embedded systems, among others. As the number of Blockchain users increases, several drawbacks start to emerge, since Blockchains consume excessive amounts of energy to store and manipulate data. Furthermore, the limited scalability nature of Blockchains due to their massive storage requirements might become an issue. To improve the overall performance, several challenges in the current Blockchain structure should be tackled. This paper presents a hybrid system architecture that combines the distributed nature of Blockchains with the centralized feature of servers. Users will connect to servers via personal Blockchains, while servers will share a chain of Blockchains to ensure integrity and security. This will significantly decrease the storage requirements of end- users and enhance the scalability of networks. Businesses will highly benefit from this proposed structure, since it creates a reliable scalable business model.

[1] S. Nakamoto, Bitcoin: Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, 2008.

[2] I. Eyal, A. Efe Gencer, E. Gün Sirer and R. van Renesse, "Bitcoin-ng: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol," Proceedings of the 13th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI ’16), pp. 45-59, Santa Clara, CA, USA, March 16–18, 2016.

[3] L. W. Cong and Z. He, "Blockchain Disruption and Smart Contracts," The Review of Financial Studies, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1754-1797, 2019.

[4] R. Beck, M. Avital, M. Rossi and J. B. Thatcher, "Blockchain Technology in Business and Information Systems Research," Business & Information Systems Engineering, vol. 59, pp. 381-384, 2017.

[5] A. Wright and P. De Filippi, "Decentralized Blockchain Technology and the Rise of Lex Cryptographia," SSRN, ID. 2580664, Elsevier, 2015.

[6] G. Zyskind, O. Nathan and A. Pentland, "Decentralizing Privacy: Using Blockchain to Protect Personal Data," Proc. of IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops, pp. 180-184, San Jose, CA, USA, 2015.

[7] Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H.-N. Dai, X. Chen and H. Wang, "Blockchain Challenges and Opportunities: A Survey," International Journal of Web and Grid Services, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 352-375, 2018.

[8] M. Nofer, P. Gomber, O. Hinz and D. Schiereck, "Blockchain," Business & Information Systems Engineering, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 183-187, 2017.

[9] J. Lindman, V. K. Tuunainen and M. Rossi, "Opportunities and Risks of Blockchain Technologies–A Research Agenda," Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1533-1542, [Online], Available: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/41338, 2017.

[10] V. Gramoli, "From Blockchain Consensus Back to Byzantine Consensus," Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 107, pp. 760-769, 2020.

[11] J.-H. Huh and S.-K. Kim, "The Blockchain Consensus Algorithm for Viable Management of New and Renewable Energies," Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 11, ID. 3184, [Online], Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/ su11113184, 2019.

[12] I. Eyal and E. Gün Sirer, "Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable," Proc. of International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 436-454, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.

[13] A. Kosba, A. Miller, E. Shi, Z. Wen and C. Papamanthou, "Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-preserving Smart Contracts," Proc. of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), pp. 839-858, San Jose, CA, USA, 2016.

[14] S. Barber, X. Boyen, E. Shi and E. Uzun, "Bitter to Better—How to Make Bitcoin a Better Currency," Proc. of the International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 399-414, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.

[15] H. Watanabe, S. Fujimura, A. Nakadaira, Y. Miyazaki, A. Akutsu and J. Kishigami, "Blockchain Contract: Securing a Blockchain Applied to Smart Contracts," Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 467-468, 2016.

[16] D. Meshkov, A. Chepurnoy and M. Jansen, "Short Paper: Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems," Proc. of International Workshop on Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology, pp. 429-436, Springer, Cham, 2017.

[17] D. Kraft, "Difficulty Control for Blockchain-based Consensus Systems," Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 397-413, 2016.

[18] H. Vranken, "Sustainability of Bitcoin and Blockchains," Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 28, pp. 1-9, 2017.

[19] K. J. O'Dwyer and D. Malone, "Bitcoin Mining and Its Energy Footprint," Proc. of the 25th IET Irish Signals & Systems Conference 2014 and 2014 China-Ireland International Conference on Information and Communications Technologies (ISSC 2014/CIICT 2014), pp. 280-285, 2014.

[20] E. Francioni and F. Venturelli, "The Dusk Network and Blockchain Architecture," WEB3 Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, [Online], Avaialble: https://dusk.network/uploads/dusk-whitepaperv1.pdf, 2018.

[21] P. H. Gleichauf, "Blockchain Mining Using Trusted Nodes," U.S. Patent Application Publication, Pub. no. US 2018 / 0109541 A1, [Online], Available: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/23/4f/69/4bbc9631 31ccbc67/US20180109541A1.pdf, May 14, 2019.

[22] A. Shariar, Md. A. Imran, P. Paul and A. Rahman, "A Decentralized Computational System Built on Blockchain for Educational Institutions," Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing Advancements, pp. 1-6, [Online], Available: https://doi.org/10.1145/3377049.3377058, 2020.

[23] M. Crosby, Nachiappan, P. Pattanayak, S. Verma and V. Kalyanaraman, "Blockchain Technology: Beyond Bitcoin," Applied Innovation Review (AIR), no.8, pp. 6-19, June 2016.

[24] BitFury Group, "Proof of Stake versus Proof of Work," White Paper, Version 1, pp. 2-26, [Online], available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6990/0bac4097a576414f69f1998c11089fb5bb94.pdf, September 2015.

[25] J. Spasovski and P. Eklund, "Proof of Stake Blockchain: Performance and Scalability for Groupware Communications," Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Management of Digital EcoSystems, pp. 251-258, [Online], available: https://pure.itu.dk/portal/files/83126213/Proof_of_Stake_Blockchain_Performance_and_Scalability_for_Groupware_Communications.pdf, 2017.