Image compression techniques have been widely used to store and transmit data which requires storage space
and high transfer speed. The explosive growth of high-quality photos leads to the requirement of efficient
technique to store and exchange data over the internet. In this paper, we present a comparative study to
compare between the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithms in
combination with Huffman algorithm; DCT-H and DWT-H. The comparison is based on five factors:
Compression Ratio (CR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity
Index Measure (SSIM) and compression/decompression time. The experiments are conducted on five BMP gray-
scale file images. We found out that DWT-H coding is comparable to DCT-H coding in term of CR and
outperforms DCT-H in terms of MSE, PSNR and SSIM. The CR average results of the five test images for DCT-
H and DWT-H are 2.36 and 3.17, respectively. Moreover, DCT-H has the average results of MSE = 13.19,
PSNR = 37.15 and SSIM = 0.76, while WDT-H has the average results of MSE = 4.54, PSNR = 42.5 and SSIM
= 0.85. On the other hand, DCT-H outperforms DWT-H in term of execution time for compression and
decompression. DCT-H has an average compression time of 0.358s and an average decompression time of
0.122s, while WDT-H has 2.38s compression time and 2.13s decompression time.
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