(Received: 2017-05-20, Revised: 2017-08-19 , Accepted: 2017-10-07)
This study reports on the construction of a one million word English-Arabic Political Parallel Corpus (EAPPC), which will be a useful resource for research in translation studies, language learning and teaching, bilingual lexicography, contrastive studies, political science studies and cross-language information retrieval. It describes the phases of corpus compilation and explores the corpus, by way of illustration, to discover the translation strategies used in rendering the Arabic and Islamic culture-specific terms takfīr and takfīrī from Arabic into English and from English into Arabic. The Corpus consists of 351 English and Arabic original documents and their translations. A total of 189 speeches, 80 interviews and 68 letters, translated by anonymous translators in the Royal Hashemite Court, were selected and culled from King Abdullah II's official website, in addition to the textual material of the English and Arabic versions of His Majesty's book, Our Last Best Chance: The Pursuit of Peace in a Time of Peril (2011). The texts were meta-annotated, segmented, tokenized, English-Arabic aligned, stemmed and POS-tagged. Furthermore, a parallel (bilingual) concordance was built in order to facilitate exploration of the parallel corpus. The challenges encountered in corpus compilation were found to be the scarcity of freely available machine-readable Arabic-English translated texts and the deficiency of tools that process Arabic texts.

[1] J. Sinclair, Corpus, Concordance, Collocation, Oxford University Press, 1991.

[2] M. Baker, "Corpora in Translation Studies: An Overview and Some Suggestions for Future Research," Target, vol. 7, pp. 223-243, 1995.

[3] D. Biber, S. Conrad and R. Reppen, Corpus linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

[4] L. Bowker, "Towards a Methodology for a Corpus-based Approach to Translation Evaluation," Meta: Journal des traducteurs Meta:/Translators' Journal, vol. 46, pp. 345-364, 2001.

[5] S. Hunston, Corpora in Applied Linguistics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

[6] F. Zanettin, S. Bernardini and D. Stewart, Corpora in Translator Education, London, 2014.

[7] I. Ulitkin, "Computer-assisted Translation Tools: A Brief Review," Translation Journal, vol. 15, 2011.

[8] F. J. Och, "Statistical Machine Translation: Foundations and Recent Advances," presented at the Tutorial at MT Summit, Phuket, Thailand, 2005.

[9] L. Bowker and J. Pearson, Working with Specialized Language: A Practical Guide to Using Corpora, London, NY: Routledge, 2002.

[10] S. Goodman and K. O'Halloran, The Art of English: Literary Creativity, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

[11] K. Aijmer, B. Altenberg and M. Johansson, Languages in Contrast: Papers from a Symposium on Text-based Cross-linguistic Studies, Lund 4-5 March 1994, vol. 88, Lund Studies in English, 1996.

[12] D. Samy, A. Moreno Sandoval and J. M. Guirao, "An Alignment Experiment of a Spanish-Arabic Parallel Corpus," Proceedings of the International Conference on Arabic Language Resources and Tools (NEMLAR 2004), pp. 85-89, 2004.

[13] D. Samy, A. M. Sandoval, J. M. Guirao and E. Alfonseca, "Building a Parallel Multilingual Corpus (Arabic-Spanish-English)," Proceedings of the 5th Intl. Conf. on Language Resources and Evaluations (LREC), 2006.

[14] M. Tadić, "Building the Croatian-English Parallel Corpus," The 5th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'2006), pp.523-530, Athens, Greece, 2000.

[15] S. Singh, T. McEnery and P. Baker, "Building a Parallel Corpus of English/Panjabi," Parallel Text Processing, ed: Springer, pp. 335-346, 2000.

[16] L. Rura, W. Vandeweghe and M. Montero Perez, "Designing a Parallel Corpus as a Multifunctional Translator's Aid," in XVIII FIT World Congress= XVIIIe Congrès mondial de la FIT, 2008.

[17] H. Al-Ajmi, "A New English–Arabic Parallel Text Corpus for Lexicographic Applications," Lexikos, vol. 14, pp. 326-330, 2004.

[18] A. Pasha, M. Al-Badrashiny, M. T. Diab, A. El Kholy, R. Eskander, N. Habash, et al., "MADAMIRA: A Fast, Comprehensive Tool for Morphological Analysis and Disambiguation of Arabic," LREC, pp. 1094-1101, 2014.

[19] J. Véronis, "From the Rosetta Stone to the Information Society," Parallel Text Processing, ed: Springer, pp. 1-24, 2000.

[20] L. Al-Sulaiti and E. Atwell, Designing and Developing a Corpus of Contemporary Arabic, MA Thesis, School of Computing, University of Leeds, UK, 2004.

[21] H. Hasselgård, "Contrastive Analysis / Contrastive Linguistics," The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia, K. Malmkjær, Ed., Third Edition, London, NY: Routledge, pp. 98-101, 2010.

[22] G. R. Yepes, "Parallel Corpora in Translator Education," Redit: Revista Electrónica de Didáctica de la Traducción y la Interpretación, pp. 65-80, 2011.

[23] J. Tiedemann and L. Nygaard, "The OPUS Corpus-Parallel & Free," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'04), Lisbon, Portugal, 2004.

[24] M. S. S. Sawalha, Open-source Resources and Standards for Arabic Word Structure Analysis: Fine Grained Morphological Analysis of Arabic Text Corpora, PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, 2011.

[25] K. Dukes and N. Habash, "Morphological Annotation of Quranic Arabic," in LREC'10, Malta, 2010.

[26] H. Salhi, "Investigating the Complementary Polysemy and the Arabic Translations of the Noun Destruction in EAPCOUNT," Meta: Journal des traducteurs Meta:/Translators’ Journal, vol. 58, pp. 227-246, 2013.

[27] P. Baker, A. Hardie and T. McEnery, A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics: Edinburgh Uni. Press, 2006.

[28] A. Pawley and F. H. Syder, "Two Puzzles for Linguistic Theory: Nativelike Selection and Nativelike Fluency," Language and Communication, vol. 191, p. 225, 1983.

[29] M. Ghadessy, A. Henry and R. L. Roseberry, Small Corpus Studies and ELT: Theory and Practice, SCL 5, Philadelphia, USA: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 2001.

[30] M. F. Porter, "An Algorithm for Suffix Stripping," Program, vol. 14, pp. 130-137, 1980.

[31] M. Baker, "Corpus Linguistics and Translation Studies: Implications and Applications," Text and Technology: In honour of John Sinclair, M. Baker, G. Francis and E. Tognini Bonelli, Eds., Philadelphia, USA: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 1993.

[32] S. Laviosa, Corpus-based Translation Studies: Theory, Findings, Applications, Amsterdam – New York, NY: Rodopi B.V, 2002.

[33] M. Olohan, Introducing Corpora in Translation Studies, London, NY: Routledge, 2004.

[34] C. Fantinuoli and F. Zanettin, New Directions in Corpus-based Translation Studies, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2015.

[35] G. Shen, "Corpus-based Approaches to Translation Studies," Cross-Cultural Communication, vol. 6, pp. 181-187, 2011.

[36] A. Shunnaq, "Arabic‐English Translation of Political Speeches," Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, vol. 8, pp. 207-228, 2000.

[37] G. Quentel, "Translating a Crucial Political Speech," ed: Retrieved October, 2006.

[38] K. Sárosi-Márdirosz, "Problems Related to the Translation of Political Texts," Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Philologica, pp. 159-180, 2014.

[39] M. Baker, In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation, London, NY: Routledge, 1992.