Spectrum sensing is a key enabling technology for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). The main objective
of spectrum sensing is to provide more spectrum access opportunities to cognitive radio users without
interfering with the operations of the licensed network. Spectrum sensing decisions can lead to erroneous
sensing with low performance due to fading, shadowing and other interferences caused by either terrain
inconsistency or dense urban structure. In order to improve spectrum sensing decisions, in this paper a
cooperative spectrum sensing scheme is proposed. The propagation conditions such as the variance and
intensity of terrain and urban structure between two points with respect to signal propagation are taken
into consideration. We have also derived the optimum fusion rule which accounts for location reliability
of secondary users (SUs). The analytical results show that the proposed scheme slightly outperforms the
conventional cooperative spectrum sensing approaches.
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